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Bursitis: Bursitis is the inflammation or irritation of the bursa. The bursa is a sac filled with lubricating fluid, located between tissues such as bone, muscle, tendons, and skin, that decreases rubbing, friction, and irritation.

Cauda Equina Syndrome: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a serious condition that comes with extreme pressure and swelling of the nerves at the end of the spinal cord (L1 region). Symptoms can vary depending on the degree of nerve compression at the cauda equina. For some, CES develops suddenly while others experience symptoms gradually.*

Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD): Damage to the disc occurs naturally or through a twisting injury where the inner and/or outer portions of the disc may tear, exposing or irritating the nerves on the outer edge of the annulus. The injury can also create excessive micro-motion instability at the adjacent vertebrae because the disc cannot hold the vertebral segment together as well as it used to. The disc itself has very few nerve endings and no blood supply. Without a blood supply the disc does not have a way to repair itself, and pain created by the damaged disc can last for years, either as a chronic condition or with periodic painful flare ups. The symptoms are most common in individuals age 30 to 60 years old.*

Disc Bulge: A bulging disc is a condition in which the nucleus (inner portion) of a spinal disc remains contained within the annulus fibrosus (outer portion), unlike a herniated disc in which the nucleus leaks out of the disc. This protrusion or bulge can put pressure on the surrounding nerve roots which can lead to pain that radiates down the back and/or other areas of the body depending on the location of the bulging disc.*

Disc Collapse: When a disc is collapsed, this means that it has lost it’s height typically due to dehydration. A collapsed disc can affect the spinal cord or nerves that are in the region, resulting in pain and other symptoms.

Disc Herniation: A herniated disc is a condition in which the annulus fibrosus (outer portion) of the vertebral disc is torn, enabling the nucleus (inner portion) to herniate or extrude through the fibers. The herniated material can compress the nerves around the disc and create pain that can radiate through the back and sometimes down the arms (if the herniation is in the cervical spine) and legs (if the herniation is in the lumbar spine).*

Disc Pain: The pain and other symptoms, such as numbness, tingling or weakness, typically travels along the path of the nerve. So a disc that herniates in the lower part of the spine causes pain along the sciatic nerve through the back of the leg, and a disc that herniates in the neck causes pain that radiates.*

Facet Disease: Facet Disease is the term used to describe a degeneration and enlargement of the facet joints. The facet joints, which are a pair of small joints at each level along the back of the spine, are designed to provide support, stability, and flexibility to the spine.*

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Failed back surgery syndrome (also called FBSS, or failed back syndrome) is a misnomer, as it is not actually a syndrome – it is a very generalized term that is often used to describe the condition of patients who have not had a successful result with back surgery or spine surgery and have experienced continued pain after surgery.*

Foraminal Stenosis: Foraminal Stenosis is the narrowing of the foramen (opening the nerve root exits through) caused by enlargement of a joint, degeneration, or disc collapse. This typically results in extremity pain, tingling, numbness, etc.

Fracture (Traumatic): A traumatic (burst) fracture is a descriptive term for an injury to the spine in which the vertebral body is severely compressed. They typically occur from severe trauma, such as a motor vehicle accident or a fall from a height. With a great deal of force vertically onto the spine, a vertebra may be crushed.*

Fracture (Senile Osteoporotic Compression): A compression fracture occurs when the vertebrae collapses. Vertebral compression fractures result when the bone tissue of the vertebral body collapses from osteoporosis, or degeneration.*

Kyphosis: Kyphosis is an exaggerated curvature of the upper (thoracic) spine that creates a hunchback appearance. It can result from developmental problems, degenerative diseases (such as arthritis), osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebrae, and trauma to the spine.*

Low Back Pain: Low Back Pain (LBP) is very common, and it involves muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and boney structures. LBP can vary from intermittent aches to constant extreme pain.

Lumbar Radiculopathy (With Leg Pain): Radicular (Lumbar Radiculopathy) pain is often secondary to compression or inflammation of a spinal nerve. When the pain radiates down the back of the leg to the calf or foot, it would in lay terms be described as sciatica. This type of pain is often deep and steady, and can usually be reproduced with certain activities and positions, such as sitting or walking.*

Pinched Nerve(s): A pinched nerve occurs when too much pressure is applied to a nerve by surrounding tissues such as bones, cartilage, muscles or tendons. This pressure disrupts the nerve’s function causing pain, tingling, numbness or weakness. For example, foraminal stenosis can cause a pinched nerve.**

Sacroiliac Joint (SI) Joint Dysfunction: Sacroiliac Joint (SI) Dysfunction is a condition in which pain is caused by the sacroiliac joint that connects the sacrum and the pelvis. Sacroiliac joint pain is believed to be caused by either too much movement (hypermobility) or too little movement (hypomobility) at the joint.*

Sciatica: Sciatica refers to pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve and is typically felt in the buttocks, down the back of the leg, and possibly to the foot. Sciatica is typically caused by common conditions including a herniated disc, degenerative disc disease and lumbar spinal stenosis. Sciatica is a descriptive term rather than a diagnosis. The term sciatica is used because it describes the radiculopathy that occurs when one or more of the nerves that make up the large sciatic nerve are irritated or pinched. Most cases of sciatica will get better with time and conservative (nonsurgical) care.*

Scoliosis: Scoliosis is a condition involving an abnormal sideways curvature of the spine. It can be caused by congenital, developmental or degenerative problems, but most cases of scoliosis actually have no known cause called idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis usually develops in the thoracic spine or the thoracolumbar area of the spine. The curvature of the back may develop as a single curve (shaped like the letter C) or as two curves (shaped like the letter S). Scoliosis appears during adolescence and indicators include unevenness in the shoulder height, shoulder blades, rib cages and hips.*

Spinal Cord Compression: Spinal cord compression occurs when a mass places pressure on the cord. A mass can include a disc, tumor, a fragment, ligament, or bone (stenosis) . Compression can develop anywhere along the spinal cord from the neck to the lower spine.***

Spinal Infection: Spinal infections can be classified by the anatomical location involved: the vertebral column, intervertebral disc space, the spinal canal and adjacent soft tissues. Infection may be caused by bacteria or fungal organisms, and can occur after surgery, or from other various means.****

Spondylolisthesis: Spondylolisthesis is the condition in which one vertebral body is slipped forward over another. Spondylolisthesis is most likely caused by an underlying condition of spondylolysis. There are different types of spondylolisthesis, including degenerative, isthmic, dysplastic, traumatic, and pathologic.*

Spondylosis (Arthritis): Spondylosis is a broad term that simply refers to some type of degeneration in the spine. Most often, the term spondylosis is used to describe osteoarthritis of the spine, but it is also commonly used to describe any manner of spinal degeneration.*

Sprain (Spine): A spine sprain is caused when ligaments, the tough bands of tissue that hold spinal bones together, are torn from their attachments.****

Stenosis (Canal Narrowing): Stenosis is the abnormal narrowing of the bone channel occupied by the spinal nerves or the spinal cord.*




**Mayo Clinic



Sky Spine Endoscopy Institute